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The FBA Profiler

(Functional Behavioral Assessment Profiler)

 

A comprehensive norm-referenced and criterion referenced behavior rating scale

 

Designed to:

 

 

  • identify potential "target" or problem  behaviors

  • suggest hypothesized "functions" of or reasons for existing or potential  behaviors, and

  • provide a broad screening of potential mental health concerns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developed By

 

Scott L. Crouse, PhD

 

Copyright © 2007-2020 LDinfo Publishing

 

Jump to:

Section 1 - Overview of the FBA Profiler

Section 2 - The FBA Profiler Rating Scales

Section 3 - Statistical Properties of the FBA Profiler

Section 4 - Interpretation of the FBA Profiler

Section 5 - Utilizing the Online FBA Profiler App

Section 6 - Installation and Use of the FBA Profiler Software

Section 1

Overview of the FBA Profiler

Purpose/intent of the FBA Profiler: 

Emotional and behavioral needs of children and adolescents have been evaluated for decades through the use of various behavior rating scales or profiles.  These rating scales typically have been used to compare an individual student’s observable behavior with that of the “normal” or general student population in order to determine the significance of any behavioral differences found.  The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) which was amended in 1995 and reauthorized in 2004, defines and clarifies a need for public schools to go beyond the mere identification of significant behavioral difficulties and to also perform a formal functional behavioral assessment (FBA).  Clearly the intent of an FBA is to promote a more thoughtful and meaningful understanding of the underlying emotional needs or motivations which are served by the behavior so that appropriate and positive behavioral interventions can be developed to more directly meet the needs of individual students.  Although various behavior rating scales have been developed and utilized for many years to identify significant behavioral difficulties in students and provide screening for certain mental health conditions (typically ADHD, conduct disorders, anxiety disorders, and/or depression) these rating scales typically do not address underlying emotional or psychological “needs” related to potential “functions” of behavior(s).  Traditional behavior rating scales also frequently take a rather clinical approach to emotional/behavioral needs which is sometimes difficult for educators and/or parents to fully understand or utilize. 

In contrast to traditional behavior rating scales, the FBA Profiler is specifically designed to not only identify specific areas of behavioral difficulty (i.e. “target behaviors”) but also to evaluate patterns of responses in order to identify potential underlying “functions” of the behavior(s) and promote more appropriate and effective behavioral intervention.  The FBA Profiler also provides a broad-spectrum mental health screening in nine specific categories (based largely upon current DSM criteria). Most importantly, the FBA Profiler has been designed by a practicing school psychologist to be directly relevant to the psychoeducational needs of children and adolescents, with interpretations and suggested interventions which are easily understood by teachers and parents.  The FBA Profiler is also normed for ages 3 through adult for use before and beyond the typical school-aged population.

Unique Design of the FBA Profiler Professional software package:

Unlike other behavior rating scales which require an examiner to separately purchase rating forms, examiner/technical manual, and computer scoring software, the FBA Profiler is provided entirely as a computer software package compatible with both Windows (PC) and Macintosh computer operating systems.  The software package includes the FBA Profiler behavior rating forms (in English and Spanish), an application for entry and scoring of the rating forms, (resulting in extensive computer-generated reports), online instructions, and web-based links to the examiner/technical manual as well as other relevant or updated information.  The entire software package is provided to individual users, small groups, or larger “sites” through a registration process which provides users unlimited access to rating forms and scoring/reporting options throughout the duration of the registration period (1 to 3 years).  Users are also entitled to any available software updates throughout their registration period.

Development of the FBA Profiler:

Standardization-

Standardization of the FBA Profiler was accomplished in two phases: 

The initial preliminary standardization process involved posting internet web-based rating forms for parents to rate their children, teachers to rate their students, and anyone to rate themselves.  This on-line FBA Profiler rating allowed anyone with an internet connection to take part in the initial standardization process and facilitated the gathering of normative data from across the country.  Due to a tendency for such on-line behavior ratings to be dominated by subjects with existing or suspected behavioral difficulties, additional subject and demographic information was utilized in order to “normalize” the population of subjects actually selected for the preliminary standardization process.  FBA Profiler rating items were also included in an alternate online learning disability/learning style rating scale (Cognitive Processing Inventory) which additionally supported the initial establishment of a “normal” distribution of ratings. 

After establishment of preliminary norms through the process described above, a workable prototype of the FBA Profiler was developed and made available to school districts and private mental health professionals for beta testing throughout the 2005-2006 school year.  Following instrument and software refinement through the beta testing process several school districts and private practitioners across the United States have been taking part in a traditional standardization process by gathering and submitting rating data from a broad random sampling of subjects from the general population.

Age and Gender:  For the 2017 update, the chosen standardization sample of 5804 subjects was separated into twelve age/gender groups which were used in the development of the formal FBA Profiler norms.  Table 1.1 shows the total number of subjects in each group.

Table 1.1

Standardization Samples by Age and Gender

Age Group Male (N)   Female (N)
3-0 to 6-11  762 476
7-0 to 10-11 835  596
11-0 to 14-11 414 366
15-0 to 18-11 174 275
19-0 to 22-11 223 822
23-0 +  196 665

 

Ethnicity:  Ethnic distribution within the FBA Profiler standardization group has been adjusted to match current U.S. census data.

Because of concern regarding nonbiased assessment practices, additional data analysis was conducted to determine the significance of any potential differences found between ratings of "white" and "non-white" individuals.  Two-tailed t-tests were performed comparing white and non-white average raw scores obtained in each target behavior category for parent, teacher, and student/self ratings.  These statistical comparisons found no significant differences across any of the eight target behavior categories as a function of ethnicity.  This suggests that the FBA Profiler is able to provide a non-biased evaluation of behavioral difficulties across racial groups.
                       

Appropriate use of

The FBA Profiler is intended to provide a comprehensive rating of a student's observable behavior both within and outside of an educational environment.  It primarily represents a convenient means of gathering information from parents and/or teachers, and for older children (age 12 and up) and adults, valuable information can be directly obtained about how they view their own behavior.  Note:  Although norms for self ratings are provided down to age 7, such ratings for children under the age of 12 should be viewed with considerable caution.

The FBA Profiler consists of a two-page checklist (see Appendix A) which can be completed by parents, teachers, or the students themselves (preferably for ages 12 and above).  These forms consist of approximately 10 descriptive/identifying items followed by 120 rating items.  Each item is rated on a scale of 1 to 3 with 1 indicating that the item is not at all true (or not observed), 2 indicating that the item is somewhat true, and 3 indicating that the item is very true for the subject being rated.

When completed by parents, this checklist is typically sent home along with a brief explanation of the intent and purpose of the rating.  When completed by students, the checklist can either be given to them directly to complete by themselves, or it can be read to them with their responses recorded by a teacher, psychologist, etc.  It is important to note that each and every item must be completed.  Raters should be instructed to use a rating of "1" when the behavior either is not observed or when uncertain about the correct response. 

Two versions of the ratings forms are available; one form for individuals to rate themselves, and another form for parents or teachers to rate an individual child/student.  Both versions of the forms are available in both English and Spanish.

 

Who should rate the subject? As with any behavior rating scale, the FBA Profiler will yield most reliable and valid results when completed by parents and/or teachers who have the greatest opportunity to directly observe the student’s behavior.  When parents are separated, it is probably best to have each parent complete a rating, keeping in mind that one parent may have somewhat greater opportunity to observe the child than the other parent.  When choosing teachers to complete the ratings, while it is sometimes valuable to obtain a broad cross section of ratings from all teachers or a few “randomly selected” teachers, it is sometimes more efficient and effective to solicit ratings from a few teachers who are most directly involved with the particular student.  In addition to parent and teacher ratings, students aged 12 or above are usually able to provide reliable and accurate ratings of their own emotional and behavioral needs.  Although some students may tend to minimize the significance of their emotional/behavioral needs, on the FBA Profiler this potential for error is corrected when raw scores are converted to standardized scores.

 

Brief description of the rating scales:

Target Behaviors – What specific types of behavior are being observed?  The following specific areas are evaluated according to age-based national norms to determine statistical significance of any behaviors observed.
           
                                Internalizing                                  Externalizing
                                Task Avoidance/Off-Task             Disruption
                                Social Withdrawal                         Delinquency
                                Passive Aggression                       Active Aggression
                                Somatic Issues                              Defiance

Hypothesized Functions of Behavior – What are likely underlying emotional motivations for observed behaviors?  The following specific areas are evaluated according to an empirically-based criterion reference in order to establish a pattern of “relatively significant concern”.

                                Attention-Seeking
                                Social Status
                                Escape/Avoidance
                                Anxiety-Reduction
                                Self-Indulgence
                                Defensive Reaction
                                Power/Control
                                Revenge

Mental Health Screening – Are observed patterns of behavior consistent with any of the more common DSM mental health diagnoses?  The following specific areas are evaluated according to current DSM criteria in order to screen for these potential areas of mental health concern. 

                                ADHD Inattentive Type
                                ADHD Hyperactive Type
                                Conduct Disorder
                                Oppositional-Defiant Disorder
                                Depression
                                Anxiety Disorder
                                Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
                                Thought Disorder
                                Autism Spectrum Disorder

 

Section 2

The FBA Profiler Rating Scales

Following are detailed descriptions of the various behavioral, functional, and mental health categories evaluated by the FBA Profiler.

The Target Behavior Scale:

Target behaviors are specific and observable areas of behavioral concern which can be identified for possible intervention.  Ratings provided within this category include:

Task Avoidance/Off-Task – A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to avoid, ignore, or otherwise fail to accomplish required or expected tasks including homework, daily chores, etc.

Social Withdrawal - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to be somewhat socially isolated and avoid situations in which social interaction is expected or required.

Passive Aggression - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to attempt to assert control or 'get back at others' through indirect means such as tattling, writing threatening notes, spreading rumors, defacing property, etc.

Somatic Issues - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to complain of physical symptoms or 'ailments' such as headaches, nausea, body aches, minor injuries, etc.

Disruption - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to engage in behavior which disturbs, interrupts, or draws others 'off-task'.

Delinquency - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to engage in negative or rebellious behavior with peers.

Active Aggression - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to become angry and start physical fights or verbal arguments with others.

Defiance - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests a tendency to deliberately break rules or otherwise challenge and/or defy authority.

 

The Functions of Behavior Scale:

Hypothesized functions of behavior are assumed underlying emotional needs or motivations which may result in certain predictable behavioral tendencies.  Ratings within this category include:

Attention Seeking – A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may allow him to gain attention from others.  Typical behaviors may include teasing, complaining, interrupting, or otherwise disrupting those around him.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Provide appropriate opportunities to gain positive attention from others.
  2. Assign 'important' jobs around the house or classroom.
  3. Give opportunities for him to help others with tasks or assignments.
  4. Provide extra praise and/or encouragement.

Social Status - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may be intended to gain social acceptance or status and to 'save face' or avoid embarrassment among his peers.  Typical behaviors may range from withdrawal or avoidance (to evade potentially embarrassing situations) to aggression or defiance (to impress or 'fit in with' certain peers).  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Promote positive social connections (i.e. paired or team projects, etc.).
  2. Avoid 'public' criticism, punishment, or embarrassment.
  3. Provide a 'safe way out' of a difficult or embarrassing situation.
  4. Help him to understand how his behavior may alienate others.

Escape/Avoidance - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may enable him to escape or avoid an unpleasant, difficult, or potentially embarrassing situation.  Typical behaviors of this nature include general fear-of-failure reactions such as task avoidance and social withdrawal but may also involve perfectionism.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Provide tangible reinforcement (rewards).
  2. Reward effort or participation rather than outcome.
  3. Avoid tasks which are clearly beyond his capabilities.
  4. Provide gentle prodding and encouragement.

Anxiety Reduction - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may help him to relieve stress and/or anxiety.  Such behavior is frequently obsessive and/or compulsive in nature and can be somewhat disruptive or annoying to those around him.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Provide acceptable outlets for stress (such as a soft toy or ball to squeeze).
  2. Allow frequent breaks or 'time-outs' when he chooses.
  3. Encourage him to share his feelings of anxiety with others.
  4. Avoid placing him in potentially stressful situations.

Self Indulgence - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may allow him to do as he pleases with little regard for the needs or desires of others. This can cause friction and relationship difficulties with both peers and adults. Typical behaviors such as task avoidance, delinquency, and defiance may occur when he is asked to do something which he finds difficult or unpleasant.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Offer several acceptable choices rather than a single demand or expectation.
  2. Help him to find the relevance in a given task or assignment (i.e. why should this matter?).
  3. Develop a behavioral contract with mutually identified expectations, consequences, and rewards.
  4. Help him to understand how behavior impacts others.

Defensive Reaction - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may be related to a need to defend himself from a perceived threat, challenge, or rejection which may or may not have been intended.  Typical behaviors of this nature include verbal or physical aggression and/or abrupt social withdrawal.  This behavior can be the result of a somewhat paranoid perception of social situations and is often viewed by others as an unexpected overreaction to harmless teasing, meaningless comments, etc.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Help him to more accurately perceive social situations.
  2. Help him to feel safe, accepted, and supported.
  3. Intervene quickly when it appears he may feel criticized or potentially embarrassed.
  4. Temper any potentially critical remarks in order to avoid a possible overreaction.

Power/Control - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may be intended to challenge authority and/or assert control over his own life or those around him.  This can be related to feelings that others have been overly controlling or unfairly punitive.  Typical behaviors may include task avoidance, delinquency, aggression, and/or defiance.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Choose your battles carefully - don't engage in power struggles over insignificant issues.
  2. Don't back down on important issues.
  3. Respect his need to make many of his own choices.
  4. Allow him to experience the “natural consequences” of his choices and learn from his mistakes.

Revenge - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject's behavior may be intended to 'get back at' or put others 'in their place'.   This can be related to feelings that others have been mean or unfair to him.  Typical behaviors may include passive aggression, active aggression, or defiance.  Suggested interventions include:

  1. Provide frequent and appropriate opportunities to vent anger or frustration.
  2. Mediate quickly to resolve conflicts (don't let problems fester).
  3. Encourage open communication so that he feels heard and understood.
  4. Provide support when he is feeling “victimized”.

 

The Mental Health Screening Scale:

The mental health screening provided by the FBA Profiler is based primarily upon current DSM criteria and is intended to help clarify or identify areas of potential mental health concern.  Formal evaluation by a competent mental health professional should be considered whenever there are mental health concerns.  Ratings within this category include:

ADHD Inattentive - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - inattentive type.  Such characteristics may include difficulty focusing on or maintaining attention to tasks, difficulty with organization, carelessness, etc.  ADHD requires a medical diagnosis (from a physician or psychiatrist) and can be treated through a variety of behavior management and/or medical interventions. ADHD may add volatility to behavioral actions and/or reactions.

ADHD Hyperactive - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - impulsive or hyperactive type.  Such characteristics may include being generally 'fidgety', impulsive, active, disruptive, etc. ADHD requires a medical diagnosis (from a physician or psychiatrist) and can be treated through a variety of behavior management and/or medical interventions.  ADHD may add significantly to the volatility of behavioral actions and/or reactions.

Conduct Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of a conduct disorder.  Such characteristics may include a combination of aggression, destruction of property, deceitfulness, and serious violation of rules.  A conduct disorder is a very serious mental health condition which typically requires extensive behavior management, therapeutic, and sometimes legal/correctional intervention.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of an oppositional-defiant disorder.  Such characteristics may include generalized anger/resentment, vindictiveness, arguments with adults, rule violations, and difficulty accepting responsibility for his behavior.  Oppositional-defiant behaviors are frequently observed in adolescents and typically involve a belief that rules/expectations are unfair or simply do not apply.   Family counseling/therapy can be quite helpful in promoting objective, appropriate, and realistic behavioral expectations and consequences.

Depressive Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of depression.  Such characteristics may include generalized sadness, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, lack of energy, sleep disturbance, significant weight loss or gain, thoughts of death or suicide, and a general loss of interest in most daily activities.  Depression can be effectively treated through therapeutic and/or medical intervention.

Anxiety Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of an anxiety disorder.  Such characteristics may include generalized tension, irritability, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, lack of energy, etc.  Anxiety disorders can be effectively treated through therapeutic and/or medical intervention.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of an obsessive-compulsive disorder.  Such characteristics may include inflexibility (needing to do things in a certain way), difficulty getting his mind off of certain thoughts or mental images, a need to perform certain actions over and over to relieve stress, etc.  An obsessive-compulsive disorder can be effectively treated through therapeutic and/or medical intervention.

Thought Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of a thought disorder.  Such characteristics may include delusions, hallucinations, extremely unusual or unpredictable behavior, and/or generalized lack of emotional response.  A thought disorder is a very serious mental health condition typically requiring extensive therapeutic and medical intervention.

Autism Spectrum Disorder - A relatively significant rating in this area suggests that the subject appears to display characteristics of an autism spectrum disorder.  Such characteristics include qualitative impairment in social interaction along with impaired communication and/or restricted, repetitive, or stereo-typed patterns of behavior or interest.  Although traditional emotional/behavioral strategies can be effective, individuals with ASD typically require very concrete and structured interventions focused on developing more effective communication of feelings along with appropriate social interaction.  Medical intervention can also be helpful.

 

Section 3

Statistical Properties of the FBA Profiler

Scores provided by the various scales of the FBA Profiler:

Target Behaviors

Presently, the norm-referenced t-scores provided within the FBA Profiler target behavior category are based upon a normative sample of over 5800 individuals ages 3 through 60, across the United States.  Norms are provided for parent ratings, teacher ratings, and student ratings across all age groups.

T-scores in each “target behavior” area or within the overall “internalizing” or “externalizing” composites reflect a comparison between a particular subject's rating and the population "norm" for that rating group (parent, teacher, or student) based upon the subject’s age and gender.  The mean is set at 50 and the standard deviation set at 10 in order to facilitate interpretation similar to most other behavior rating scales.  These standard scores are plotted on the FBA Profiler computer generated report to provide a visual display of relatively significant behavioral concern.  T-scores below 60 are considered to fall within the average or “normal” range.  T-scores between 60 and 70 are considered “at risk” and suggest “moderate” behavioral concern.  T-scores of 70 or above are considered “clinically significant” and suggest relatively severe behavioral concern.

Functions of Behavior

Ratings within the “function of behavior” category simply reflect relative levels of concern based upon average item ratings within each specific functional category.  Average item scores greater than 1.8 and less than or equal to 2.2 are rated “at risk” and average scores greater than 2.2 are rated “clinically significant”. 

Mental Health Screening

Ratings within the mental health screening area are determined simply by the number of behaviors identified with an item score of 3 (“very true”) corresponding with current DSM criteria within the various mental health classifications chosen for evaluation.  When a sufficient number of specific items within a given category are endorsed in order to meet DSM criteria for that mental health disorder, the rating is considered “clinically significant”.  When a rating falls just short of DSM criteria, it is identified at the “at risk” level.  Ratings lower than “at risk” are considered to fall within the normal range.  Note:  Due to the nature of criteria within the Thought Disorder and Autism spectrum Disorder categories, these particular areas can be prone to false positive identification which can result in considerable confusion and concern.  In order to minimize such needless concern or distress, the FBA Profiler software provides the option to suppress the ratings in these areas entirely when deemed appropriate. 

Reliability of the FBA Profiler: 
Internal Consistency - In order to assess the internal consistency and overall reliability of the FBA Profiler a split-half method was employed in which the entire FBA Profiler item pool and each subscale was randomly divided into 2 similar forms.  These split-half correlations were then gathered from the entire normative sample of 5804 cases and are presented in Tables 3.1 (female) and 3.2 (male).  Correlations across the entire item pool range from .90 to .98.  This data verifies that the FBA Profiler has very strong internal consistency.

Table 3.1
Split-Half Reliability Coefficients (female)

                                      All ages      4-7         7-11       11-15      15-19      19-23       23+
            Self-Ratings           .92                                        .91          .91          .92          .92
            Parent Ratings       .93          .94          .93          .92          .90          .94          .91
            Teacher Ratings     .93          .95          .93          .93          .91          .92          .93

Table 3.2
Split-Half Reliability Coefficients (male)

                                      All ages      4-7         7-11       11-15      15-19      19-23       23+
            Self-Ratings           .92                                        .94          .93          .91          .91
            Parent Ratings       .93          .93          .93          .92          .92          .92          .90
            Teacher Ratings     .94          .95          .93          .94          .93          .98          .95
           
Validity of the FBA Profiler: 

Content Validity - The initial item selection and categorization for the FBA Profiler (within the target behavior and functions of behavior categories) was derived through an empirically-based process which utilized published research findings related to emotional/behavioral development along with hundreds of direct observations and interviews with parents and teachers of children and adolescents.  The initial item groupings were then refined through an extensive process of factor analysis to ensure that each item was indeed loading on the specific emotional or behavioral factor being rated. 

Construct Validity – Construct validity of the FBA Profiler has been established through a study comparing internalizing and externalizing t-scores derived form the FBA Profiler with those obtained for the same subjects using the BASC-2.  59 school districts across 28 states provided a total of 658 records. Table 3.3 provides correlational data obtained from those records which confirms strong construct validity for the FBA Profiler. 

Table 3.3
Correlations between FBA Profiler and BASC-2

  Internalizing Externalizing 
Self-Rating .92  .93 
Parent Rating  .89  .91
Teacher Rating .88 .92 

              

Overall, these reliability and validity studies provide very strong support for the FBA Profiler as a screening and assessment instrument for emotional and behavioral disorders.

 

Section 4

Interpretation of the FBA Profiler

Once you have gained a basic understanding of the design and intent of the FBA Profiler (see sections 1 and 2), interpretation is fairly obvious and straight-forward. After the FBA Profiler ratings have been entered into the computer scoring program a visual display of ratings in each category (target behaviors, functions of behavior, and mental health screening) is provided along with an extensive computer-generated interpretive report.  This computer-generated interpretive text  is set by default to describe areas of concern identified at either an “at risk” or “clinically significant” level.  The examiner can override this default setting to limit interpretations to only clinically significant ratings.  This can be useful when a subject is displaying a wide array of behavioral issues and more specified direction is desired.

Target of Behaviors

The target behavior scale is intended to proved a norm-referenced rating of observable behavior in order to statistically establish the significance of any identified behavioral concerns.  T-scores in each “target behavior” area or within the overall “internalizing” or “externalizing” composites reflect how a particular subject's rating compares to the population "norm" for that rating group (parent, teacher, or student) based upon the subject’s age and gender.  The mean is set at 50 and the standard deviation set at 10 in order to facilitate interpretation similar to most other behavior rating scales.  These standard scores are plotted on the FBA Profiler computer generated chart to provide a visual display of relatively significant behavioral concern.  T-scores below 60 are considered to fall within the average or “normal” range.  T-scores between 60 and 70 are considered “at risk” and suggest “moderate” behavioral concern (reflecting behavior observed within approximately 15% of the normal population).  T-scores of 70 or above are considered “clinically significant” and suggest relatively severe behavioral concern (reflecting behavior observed within less than 2% of the normal population).

Functions of Behavior

Ratings within the “function of behavior” category simply reflect relative levels of concern based upon patterns of observed behavior found within specific ratings.  Identified “functions” of concern reflect underlying emotional motivations for certain types of behavioral difficulty and may not always reflect current behavior problems.  In other words, if relatively significant concern in noted in certain “functional” areas but not within the “target behavior” category, this may suggest area of vulnerability or emerging concern, possibly suggesting ongoing monitoring or even preemptive support or intervention.

Mental Health Screening

Ratings within the mental health screening area are determined simply by the number of behaviors identified with an item score of 3 (“very true”) corresponding with current DSM criteria within the various mental health classifications chosen for evaluation.  When a sufficient number of specific items within a given category are endorsed in order to meet DSM criteria for that mental health disorder, the rating is considered “clinically significant”.  When a rating falls just short of DSM criteria, it is identified at the “at risk” level.  Ratings lower than “at risk” are considered to fall within the normal range.  Ratings in the at risk or clinically significant range may warrant a referral for a more formal mental health evaluation.  Note:  Due to the nature of criteria within the Thought Disorder and Autism spectrum Disorder categories, these particular areas can be prone to false positive identification which can result in considerable confusion and concern.  In order to minimize such needless concern or distress, the FBA Profiler software provides the option to suppress the ratings in these areas entirely when deemed appropriate. 

 

Section 5

Utilizing the Online FBA Profiler App

All LDinfo assessment tools are now available as fully functional online apps eliminating the need to download and/or install software and allowing access to your records from any computer or tablet with an internet connection.  To access the app, go directly to www.LDinfo.com/webd.htm or use the dropdown menu at the top of any LDinfo web page.

Then select the FBA Pro icon.


Logging In:

After clicking the FBA Pro icon, you will be taken to the login screen shown below.  If you have not yet been provided a registration code, you can simply leave the email field blank to log in with limited guest access (to see how the app works and preview various report options.  But if you already have an assigned registration code, enter your email address in this screen and click the “Log In” button -

then enter your assigned registration code in the next screen.


After your first time logging in with your assigned registration code, your code will be securely retained within the online system so that you will only need to enter your email address for subsequent logins in order to be linked with your specific set of saved records and reports.

Completing an entry in 4 easy steps:

New Online Entry

Traditional Paper Forms

Step 1a: Use the yellow button at the top of the main page to copy the web address for online entry…

…then copy the displayed web address. 

Step 2a:  Provide the online entry address to parents/teachers asking them to completed the form for the student being evaluated.
Be sure to tell them to enter your email address into the designated field on the form so that the contents of the completed form will be emailed directly to you.

Step 1b: From the online screen click the button entitled 'Print FBA Profiler Forms'…

…then follow the onscreen prompts to save or print the desired form(s).

After the PDF copy of the form has either been displayed or saved, you may either print 1 copy of each form and then duplicate as needed or just print new forms as you need them.

Step 2b: Distribute printed FBA Pro rating forms to parents, teachers, and/or students and collect the completed forms for scoring.

Step 3: To score completed FBA Pro forms, simply return to the online FBA Pro App and click the 'New Record' button at the top of the page.

A new page will open which allows entry of subject information including name, age, grade, school, etc. Be sure to enter an age in whole years (no dashes, decimal points, months, etc.) and sex so that the norm-referenced scores can be accurately calculated. Then select the appropriate button below that section to begin entering rating data (from parent, teacher, or self-ratings).

For each of up to 3 parent entries you may select from a list of parent/guardian types to be used as the label in the interpretive chart and descriptions. 


Similarly, the 6 optional teacher entry screens also allow you to designate specific school staff labels as well as the teacher’s last name along with the option to combine the name with the label (i.e. “teacher Smith”) for use in the computer-generated charts and text interpretation.


You may enter multiple ratings for each subject (i.e. parent, teacher, and/or student/self ratings) in order to directly compare results on the graphic display provided in the report.  There is also a button on each entry screen which opens an alternate layout allowing teachers, parents, or students to directly enter ratings onto your computer.

Step 4: When available ratings have been entered, simply click the 'Calculate Scores/View Report' button at the top of the page. A new page will open in which you can preview graphic displays of each rating category, combine or separate parent or teacher ratings or exclude certain ratings. You may also select the level of significance desired for interpretation as described below.

Report Options:

The default interpretation is set at “moderate” meaning that any rating in the “at risk” or “clinically significant” range will be identified as being of relative concern in the interpretive text.  If you wish to limit interpretive descriptions to only “clinically significant” ratings, simply click the level of significance button toward the top of the screen to change significance to “severe”.  To return to the default setting, simply click the button again. 

 

Additional report/interpretation options including removing or combining certain ratings can be accomplished by clicking appropriate buttons toward the top of the screen.  It is sometimes useful to remove ratings which are believed to be invalid and may potentially result in misleading interpretations.  In other cases, you may wish to combine parent and/or teacher ratings in order to view overall patterns of concern.  Additionally, when more than 6 separate ratings have been entered it is possible that the visual charts may not display all rating data if too many ratings fall at the same level.  In that case, again it may be useful to combine certain ratings.

If you wish to view patterns of responses across ratings in specific areas, click the “View/compare specific item response” button at the top of the “Report Options” page.

 

Printing Reports:

Various print/save buttons are included in any layout which can be printed (typically at the bottom of the page).   If you choose to accept the full computer-generated report, simply click the “Print Full Report” button at the bottom of the Report Options page.  Optionally, you have the choice of printing either “Charts Only” or “Text Only”.  Although you cannot edit the computer-generated report text within the FBA Pro app, you can utilize the “email report text” button to either send the text to your email address or copy and paste the text into an external word processing application and edit as needed.  Then you could attach your edited text to the printed charts to reflect your own professional interpretation of the data.  There is also a “Brief Summary” layout (viewed by clicking that button at the top of the “Report Options” page) which may be useful if you wish to copy/paste a very brief overview of all findings into a separate evaluation summary report.
Clicking any print button from the online app will show a dialog window shown below which will explain your saving/printing options from the app:

Saving Reports:

Records/reports are automatically saved within the FBA Profiler app. 

You can also send report text via email by simply clicking the “Send as Email” button at the bottom of the report options page. 

In the page which opens next, simply enter a valid email address and edit the subject and message body as desired before clicking either of the “Send Mail” buttons.  Use "Send Mail From This Computer" only if you are working from your own computer and have a default email application. Otherwise use "Send Mail Directly From Web".

If sending from your email application, after clicking the appropriate button a popup message will inform you that the message has been placed in the outbox of your email application.  If sending directly from web, the popup message will simply inform you that the email has been sent.

 

Deleting Records:

Individual records can be permanently deleted by clicking the “Delete this record” button from the main page.

 

If you wish to delete all of your records (possibly in order to start fresh for a new school year) just send an email request and we will take care of it for you.

Free Trial / Registration Code:

All LDinfo applications (whether using the online apps or the downloaded software) are initially provided as “demonstration” versions with certain restrictions (such as not being able to print reports) until a registration code has been purchased.

During or after the initial trial period you may remove all restrictions by purchasing a registration code (instructions for purchasing this code are provided on the www.LDinfo.com web site) and entering this code either within the FBA Pro software or when logging into the online app.

If you allow your registration to expire, the software (or online app) will automatically revert to the restricted “demonstration” mode until a new registration code is purchased and entered.

 

Section 6

Installation and Use of the FBA Profiler Software
(if not using the online app)

NOTE: All of the LDinfo professional evaluation instruments (CPI Pro, FBA Profiler, FBA Brief Form, and FBA Screener) have now been consolidated into a single software package - LDinfo Apps.  Download/installation instructions are the same for either the individual or consolidated apps.

Installation:

If the LDinfo software package was downloaded from the web site, your web browser probably un-stuffed the file and created the appropriate LDinfo installer (for Mac or Windows) on your hard drive. Whether installing from the downloaded installer or from the CD-ROM, simply open the installer package and follow the on-screen instructions.

When first launching the downloaded installer, you will likely be shown a warning similar to that shown below (for Windows and Macintosh)

Windows

Macintosh


            For Windows users, simply click "yes".                     For Macintosh users, click "OK"

Then for Macintosh users:  Press and hold the "Control" key while clicking the installer and select the top "Open" option...

 

...which will allow you to open the installer

Click "Open" and you may be asked to enter an administrator's name and password to temporarily modify security settings and allow installation.


At this point the installer should launch but may be hidden behind other windows

Windows                                                          Macintosh


 

During installation, by default the LDinfo Apps package is placed either in the Users/Public directory (Windows) or in your applications folder (Macintosh) unless you select a different location.

Windows                                                         Macintosh


An 'alias' or 'shortcut' is also created on your Windows desktop or Macintosh Dock for easy access to the LDinfo application.

Windows                                                         Macintosh


   

Opening/registering LDinfo Apps:

To begin using any of the LDinfo Apps (CPI Pro, FBA Pro or FBA Screener) simply double-click the LDinfo Apps icon on the Windows desktop (or from the "Program Files" directory) or on the Macintosh dock.

The opening window will display your registration status. The first time you open the app your status will be "demo" because you have not yet entered a registration code. The demo version includes the complete software package but is somewhat restricted.



If you have purchased a registration code, simply enter and submit that code toward the bottom of the screen.



 
You will then be presented with a thank you message to let you know that the registration process has been successful.

Simply click “OK” on that message and you will see your new "Registered" status.

 

Using the FBA Pro:

After registering, to begin using any of the FBA Pro materials (scoring file, forms, manual, instructions, etc.) simply double-click the FBA Pro application or the desktop shortcut (or alias) which will open the main application window shown below. 


 

Completing an entry on a new subject is accomplished in 4 easy steps as follows:

New Online Entry

Traditional Paper Forms

Step 1a: Use the yellow button on the main screen of the application to copy the web address for online entry…

…then copy the displayed web address. 

Step 2a:  Provide the online entry address to parents/teachers asking them to completed the form for the student being evaluated.
Be sure to tell them to enter your email address into the designated field on the form so that the contents of the completed form will be emailed directly to you.

Step 1b: From the opening screen click the button entitled 'View/Print FBA Profiler Rating Forms'.

A new window will open in which you can preview and/or print the various paper rating forms (available in English or Spanish).

You may either print 1 copy of each form and then duplicate them as needed or just print new forms as you need them.

Step 2b: Distribute FBA Pro rating forms to parents, teachers, and/or subjects and collect the completed forms for scoring. 

Step 3: To score completed FBA Pro forms, simply open the FBA Pro application and click the 'New Entry' button.


A new window will open which allows entry of subject information including name, age, grade, school, etc. Be sure to enter an age in whole years (no dashes, decimal points, months, etc.) and sex so that the norm-referenced scores can be accurately calculated.

Then select the appropriate button below that section to begin entering actual rating data (from parent, teacher, or self-ratings).


For each parent entry you may select from a list of parent/guardian types to be used as the label in the interpretive chart and descriptions.  The teacher entry screens also allow you to designate specific school staff labels as well as the teacher’s last name along with the option to combine the name with the label (i.e. “teacher Smith”) for use in the computer-generated charts and text interpretation.


You may enter multiple ratings for each subject (i.e. parent, teacher, and/or student/self ratings) in order to directly compare results on the graphic display provided in the report.  There is also a button on each entry screen which opens an alternate layout allowing teachers, parents, or students to directly enter ratings onto your computer.

Step 4: When available ratings have been entered, simply click the 'Calculate Scores/View Report' button at the top of the window. A new window will open in which you can preview graphic displays of each rating category, combine or separate parent or teacher ratings or exclude certain ratings. You may also select the level of significance desired for interpretation as described below.

Report Options:

The default interpretation is set at “moderate” meaning that any rating in the “at risk” or “clinically significant” range will be identified as being of relative concern in the interpretive text.  If you wish to limit interpretive descriptions to only “clinically significant” ratings, simply click the level of significance button toward the top of the screen.  To return to the default setting, simply click the button again. 

Additional report/interpretation options including removing or combining certain ratings can be accomplished by clicking appropriate buttons toward the top of the screen.  It is sometimes useful to remove ratings which are believed to be invalid and may potentially result in misleading interpretations.  In other cases, you may wish to combine parent and/or teacher ratings in order to view overall patterns of concern.  Additionally, when more than 6 separate ratings have been entered it is possible that the visual charts may not display all rating data if too many ratings fall at the same level.  In that case, again it may be useful to combine certain ratings.

If you wish to view patterns of responses across ratings in specific areas, click the “View/compare specific item response” button at the top of the “Report Options” screen.

 

Printing Reports:

Various print/save buttons are included in any layout which can be printed (typically at the bottom of the page).   If you choose to accept the full computer-generated report, simply click the “Print Full Report” button at the bottom of the Report Options screen.  Optionally, you have the choice of printing either “Charts Only” or “Text Only”.  Although you cannot edit the computer-generated report text within the FBA Pro software, you can copy and paste the text into an external word processing application and edit as needed.  Then you could attach your edited text to the printed charts to reflect your own professional interpretation of the data.  There is also a “Brief Summary” layout (viewed by clicking that button at the top of the “Report Options” screen) which may be useful if you wish to copy/paste a very brief overview of all findings into a separate evaluation summary report.

Clicking the chosen print button will bring up your normal print screen giving you options such as number of copies, which pages to print, etc.  Be sure the page range is set appropriately for the pages you wish to print.

Note:  For best viewing and printing results the Times New Roman font should be installed on your computer.

 

Saving Reports:

Records/reports are automatically saved within the FBA Profiler app. 

You can also send report text via email by simply clicking the “Send as Email” button at the bottom of the report options page. 

In the page which opens next, simply enter a valid email address and edit the subject and message body as desired before clicking either of the “Send Mail” buttons.  Use "Send Mail From This Computer" only if you are working from your own computer and have a default email application. Otherwise use "Send Mail Directly From Web".

 

Deleting Records:

If you would like to delete any or all of the records in your FBA Pro file (possibly to start fresh each school year), from the opening screen select the “View List of Records” button.  The screen below will open showing you a list of all available records.  From this list you may either delete individual records or select the button at the top to delete all records. 

If you would like to delete all records but also save an archived copy of the file (for later review) select the “Archive & Delete all records” button. 

This option will open a window asking you to select a location for saving the copied file.  Be sure to navigate to the FBA Pro folder/directory.   This location can be found on Windows/PC computers in the Program Files directory of your C Drive (unless you chose a different location during installation).  For Macintosh users, the FBA Pro folder/directory is located in your Applications folder (unless you chose a different location during installation).


You may also rename the saved file as you see fit (perhaps including the year or date saved).

At a later date when you wish to reopen the archived file, simply select that option from the top of the “View List of Records” FBA Pro screen and navigate to the FBA Pro folder/directory to open the desired file.

This archived file will open directly in front of the current FBA Pro screen and you can navigate from one file to the other by using the “Window” menu.  Both files will close when you exit the FBA Pro application.

 

Free Trial / Registration Code:

The FBA Pro (whether using the online app or the downloaded software) is initially provided as a “demonstration” version with certain restrictions (such as not being able to print reports) until a registration code has been purchased.

During or after the initial trial period you may increase the authorized use time by purchasing a registration code (instructions for purchasing this code are provided on the www.LDinfo.com web site) and entering this code either within the FBA Pro software or when logging into the online app.

If you allow your registration to expire, the software (or online app) will automatically revert to the restricted “demonstration” mode until a new registration code is purchased and entered into the software.

 

 

 


NOTE: Print and file save dialogues shown are for Windows/PC users.  Macintosh users will have a somewhat different print dialogue.

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.

 

Achenbach, T. M.  (1991a).  Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile.  Burlington:  University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

Achenbach, T. M.  (1991b).  Manual for Teacher’s Report Form and 1991 Profile.  Burlington:  University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

American Psychiatric Association. (2001). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, Pub. L. No. 103-218 (GPO 1997).

 

Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S. Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., & McKenzie, Neer, S.  (1997).  The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED):  Scale construction and psychometric characteristics.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 545-553.

 

Conners, C. K.  (2004)  Conners’ Rating Scales – Revised.  Canada:  Multi-Health Systems.

 

Devereux Foundation.  (1999).  Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA).  Lewisville, NC:  Kaplan Press.

 

Duman, J.E. & LaFreniere, P.J. (2003). Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Preschool Edition (SCBE).  Los Angeles, California:  Western Psychological Services. 

 

Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J.  (1994).  Child Symptom Inventories manual.  Stony Brook, NY:  Checkmate Plus.

Gehring, T. M. (1998).  The Family System Test (FAST).  Seattle, WA:  Hogrefe & Huber.

Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990).  Social Skills Rating System.  Circle Pines, MN:  American Guidance.

Grotevant, H. D., & Carlson, C. I.  (1989).  Family assessment: A guide to methods and measures.  New York:  Guilford Press.

Krug, D. A., Arick, J. A., & Almond, P. J.  (1993).  Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning.  Austin, TX:  Pro-Ed.

 

Levick, M. F. (2000).  The Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment (LECATA; rev. ed).   Boca Raton, FL:  South Florida Art Psychotherapy Institute.

March, J. (1998).  Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC).  Toronto:  Multi-Health Systems.

Martin, R. P., Hooper, S., & Snow, J.  (1986).  Behavior rating scale approaches to personality assessment in children and adolescents.  In H. M. Knoff (Ed.),  The psychological assessment of children and adolescents (pp. 309-351).  New York:  Guilford Press.

Mitrushina, M. N., Boone, K. B., & D’Elia, L. F.  (1999).  Handbook of normative data for neuropsychological assessment.  New York:  Oxford University Press.

Myles, B. S., Bock, S. J., & Simpson, R. L.  (2001).  Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale.  Austin, TX:  Pro-Ed. 

 

Naglieri, J. A., LeBuffe, P. A., & Pfeiffer, S. I. (1994). Devereux scales of mental disorder. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

 

Naglieri, J. A., McNeish, T. J., & Bardos, A. N. (1991).  Draw A Person:  Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance. (DAP:SPED).  Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

 

Neisworth, J. T., Bagnato, S. J., Salvia, J., & Hunt, F. M.  (1999).  Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale: Early Childhood Indicators of Developmental Dysfunction.  Baltimore, MD:  Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

 

Paunonen, S. V., & Jackson, D. N.  (1998).  Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (NPQ).  Port Huron, MI:  Sigma Assessment Systems. 

 

Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). BASC-2 Behavior Assessment System for Children, second edition manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

 

Sheridan, S. M., Kratochwill, T. R., & Bergan, J. R.  (1996).  Conjoint behavioral consultation:  A procedural manual.  New York:  Plenum Press.

Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996).  The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV:  Child and parent versions.  San Antonio, TX:  Psychological Corporation.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2001). Current population survey, March 2001 [Data file]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

 

 

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